In all over the world, language is the source of communication among human beings. Different countries/regions have different languages. Similarly, in order to communicate with the computer user also needs to have a language that should be understood by the computer. For this purpose, different languages are developed for performing different types of work on the computer. Basically, languages are divided into two categories according to their interpretation.
Low level computer languages are machine codes or close to it. Computer cannot understand instructions given in high level languages or in English. It can only understand and execute instructions given in the form of machine language i.e. language of 0 and 1. There are two types of low level languages:
Machine Language - It is the lowest and most elementary level of Programming language and was the first type of programming language to be Developed. Machine Language is basically the only language which computer Can understand. In fact, a manufacturer designs a computer to obey just one Language, its machine code, which is represented inside the computer by a String of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1. The symbol 0 stands for the absence of Electric pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse . Since a computer is Capable of recognizing electric signals, therefore, it understand machine Language.
Assembly Language - It was developed to overcome some of the many inconveniences of machine language. This is another low level but a very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s. These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combination e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START,LABEL etc. Because of this feature it is also known as ‘Symbolic Programming Language’. This language is also very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small
English support is given to this language. The language mainly helps in compiler orientations. The instructions of the Assembly language will also be converted to machine codes by language translator to be executed by the computer.
2. High Level Languages
High level computer languages give formats close to English language and the purpose of developing high level languages is to enable people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English). High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes. Each instruction in the high level language is translated into many machine language instructions thus showing one-to-many translation