Computers are often used to automate repetitive tasks. Repeating identical or similar tasks without making errors is something that computers do well and people do poorly.
Repeated execution of a set of statements is called iteration. Because iteration is so common, Python provides several language features to make it easier. We’ve already seen the for statement in chapter 3. This the the form of iteration you’ll likely be using most often. But in this chapter we’ve going to look at the while statement — another way to have your program do iteration, useful in slightly different circumstances.
Before we do that, let’s just review a few ideas...
As we have mentioned previously, it is legal to make more than one assignment to the same variable. A new assignment makes an existing variable refer to a new value (and stop referring to the old value).
1 2 3 4 airtime_remaining = 15 print(airtime_remaining) airtime_remaining = 7 print(airtime_remaining)
The output of this program is:
because the first time airtime_remaining is printed, its value is 15, and the second time, its value is 7.
It is especially important to distinguish between an assignment statement and a Boolean expression that tests for equality. Because Python uses the equal token (=) for assignment, it is tempting to interpret a statement like a = b as a Boolean test. Unlike mathematics, it is not! Remember that the Python token for the equality operator is ==.
Note too that an equality test is symmetric, but assignment is not. For example, if a == 7 then 7 == a. But in Python, the statement a = 7 is legal and 7 = a is not.
In Python, an assignment statement can make two variables equal, but because further assignments can change either of them, they don’t have to stay that way:
1 2 3 a = 5 b = a # After executing this line, a and b are now equal a = 3 # After executing this line, a and b are no longer equal
The third line changes the value of a but does not change the value of b, so they are no longer equal. (In some programming languages, a different symbol is used for assignment, such as <- or :=, to avoid confusion. Some people also think that variable was an unfortunae word to choose, and instead we should have called them assignables. Python chooses to follow common terminology and token usage, also found in languages like C, C++, Java, and C#, so we use the tokens = for assignment, == for equality, and we talk of variables.
7.2. Updating variables
When an assignment statement is executed, the right-hand side expression (i.e. the expression that comes after the assignment token) is evaluated first. This produces a value. Then the assignment is made, so that the variable on the left-hand side now refers to the new value.
One of the most common forms of assignment is an update, where the new value of the variable depends on its old value. Deduct 40 cents from my airtime balance, or add one run to the scoreboard.
1 2 n = 5 n = 3 * n + 1
Line 2 means get the current value of n, multiply it by three and add one, and assign the answer to n, thus making n refer to the value. So after executing the two lines above, n will point/refer to the integer 16.
If you try to get the value of a variable that has never been assigned to, you’ll get an error:
>>> w = x + 1 Traceback (most recent call last): File "<interactive input>", line 1, in NameError: name 'x' is not defined
Before you can update a variable, you have to initialize it to some starting value, usually with a simple assignment:
1 2 3 runs_scored = 0 ... runs_scored = runs_scored + 1
Line 3 — updating a variable by adding 1 to it — is very common. It is called an increment of the variable; subtracting 1 is called a decrement. Sometimes programmers also talk about bumping a variable, which means the same as incrementing it by 1.
7.3. The for loop revisited
Recall that the for loop processes each item in a list. Each item in turn is (re-)assigned to the loop variable, and the body of the loop is executed. We saw this example in an earlier chapter:
1 2 3 for f in ["Joe", "Zoe", "Brad", "Angelina", "Zuki", "Thandi", "Paris"]: invitation = "Hi " + f + ". Please come to my party on Saturday!" print(invitation)
Running through all the items in a list is called traversing the list, or traversal.
Let us write a function now to sum up all the elements in a list of numbers. Do this by hand first, and try to isolate exactly what steps you take. You’ll find you need to keep some “running total” of the sum so far, either on a piece of paper, in your head, or in your calculator. Remembering things from one step to the next is precisely why we have variables in a program: so we’ll need some variable to remember the “running total”. It should be initialized with a value of zero, and then we need to traverse the items in the list. For each item, we’ll want to update the running total by adding the next number to it.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 def mysum(xs): """ Sum all the numbers in the list xs, and return the total. """ running_total = 0 for x in xs: running_total = running_total + x return running_total # Add tests like these to your test suite ... test(mysum([1, 2, 3, 4]) == 10) test(mysum([1.25, 2.5, 1.75]) == 5.5) test(mysum([1, -2, 3]) == 2) test(mysum([ ]) == 0) test(mysum(range(11)) == 55) # 11 is not included in the list.
7.4. The while statement
Here is a fragment of code that demonstrates the use of the while statement:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 def sum_to(n): """ Return the sum of 1+2+3 ... n """ ss = 0 v = 1 while v <= n: ss = ss + v v = v + 1 return ss # For your test suite test(sum_to(4) == 10) test(sum_to(1000) == 500500)
You can almost read the while statement as if it were English. It means, while v is less than or equal to n, continue executing the body of the loop. Within the body, each time, increment v. When v passes n, return your accumulated sum.
More formally, here is precise flow of execution for a while statement:
- Evaluate the condition at line 5, yielding a value which is either False or True.
- If the value is False, exit the while statement and continue execution at the next statement (line 8 in this case).
- If the value is True, execute each of the statements in the body (lines 6 and 7) and then go back to the while statement at line 5.
The body consists of all of the statements indented below the while keyword.
Notice that if the loop condition is False the first time we get loop, the statements in the body of the loop are never executed.
The body of the loop should change the value of one or more variables so that eventually the condition becomes false and the loop terminates. Otherwise the loop will repeat forever, which is called an infinite loop. An endless source of amusement for computer scientists is the observation that the directions on shampoo, “lather, rinse, repeat”, are an infinite loop.
In the case here, we can prove that the loop terminates because we know that the value of n is finite, and we can see that the value of v increments each time through the loop, so eventually it will have to exceed n. In other cases, it is not so easy, even impossible in some cases, to tell if the loop will ever terminate.
What you will notice here is that the while loop is more work for you — the programmer — than the equivalent for loop. When using a while loop one has to manage the loop variable yourself: give it an initial value, test for completion, and then make sure you change something in the body so that the loop terminates. By comparison, here is an equivalent function that uses for instead:
1 2 3 4 5 6 def sum_to(n): """ Return the sum of 1+2+3 ... n """ ss = 0 for v in range(n+1): ss = ss + v return ss
Notice the slightly tricky call to the range function — we had to add one onto n, because range generates its list up to but excluding the value you give it. It would be easy to make a programming mistake and overlook this, but because we’ve made the investment of writing some unit tests, our test suite would have caught our error.
So why have two kinds of loop if for looks easier? This next example shows a case where we need the extra power that we get from the while loop.
7.5. The Collatz 3n + 1 sequence
Let’s look at a simple sequence that has fascinated and foxed mathematicians for many years. They still cannot answer even quite simple questions about this.
The “computational rule” for creating the sequence is to start from some given n, and to generate the next term of the sequence from n, either by halving n, (whenever n is even), or else by multiplying it by three and adding 1. The sequence terminates when n reaches 1.
This Python function captures that algorithm:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 def seq3np1(n): """ Print the 3n+1 sequence from n, terminating when it reaches 1. """ while n != 1: print(n, end=", ") if n % 2 == 0: # n is even n = n // 2 else: # n is odd n = n * 3 + 1 print(n, end=".\n")
Notice first that the print function on line 6 has an extra argument end=", ". This tells the print function to follow the printed string with whatever the programmer chooses (in this case, a comma followed by a space), instead of ending the line. So each time something is printed in the loop, it is printed on the same output line, with the numbers separated by commas. The call to print(n, end=".\n") at line 11 after the loop terminates will then print the final value of n followed by a period and a newline character. (You’ll cover the \n (newline character) in the next chapter).
The condition for continuing with this loop is n != 1, so the loop will continue running until it reaches its termination condition, (i.e. n == 1).
Each time through the loop, the program outputs the value of n and then checks whether it is even or odd. If it is even, the value of n is divided by 2 using integer division. If it is odd, the value is replaced by n * 3 + 1. Here are some examples:
>>> seq3np1(3) 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. >>> seq3np1(19) 19, 58, 29, 88, 44, 22, 11, 34, 17, 52, 26, 13, 40, 20, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. >>> seq3np1(21) 21, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. >>> seq3np1(16) 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. >>>
Since n sometimes increases and sometimes decreases, there is no obvious proof that n will ever reach 1, or that the program terminates. For some particular values of n, we can prove termination. For example, if the starting value is a power of two, then the value of n will be even each time through the loop until it reaches 1. The previous example ends with such a sequence, starting with 16.
See if you can find a small starting number that needs more than a hundred steps before it terminates.
Particular values aside, the interesting question was first posed by a German mathematician called Lothar Collatz: the Collatz conjecture (also known as the 3n + 1 conjecture), is that this sequence terminates for all positive values of n. So far, no one has been able to prove it or disprove it! (A conjecture is a statement that might be true, but nobody knows for sure.)
Think carefully about what would be needed for a proof or disproof of the conjecture “All positive integers will eventually converge to 1 using the Collatz rules”. With fast computers we have been able to test every integer up to very large values, and so far, they have all eventually ended up at 1. But who knows? Perhaps there is some as-yet untested number which does not reduce to 1.
You’ll notice that if you don’t stop when you reach 1, the sequence gets into its own cyclic loop: 1, 4, 2, 1, 4, 2, 1, 4 ... So one possibility is that there might be other cycles that we just haven’t found yet.
Wikipedia has an informative article about the Collatz conjecture. The sequence also goes under other names (Hailstone sequence, Wonderous numbers, etc.), and you’ll find out just how many integers have already been tested by computer, and found to converge!
Choosing between for and while
Use a for loop if you know, before you start looping, the maximum number of times that you’ll need to execute the body. For example, if you’re traversing a list of elements, you know that the maximum number of loop iterations you can possibly need is “all the elements in the list”. Or if you need to print the 12 times table, we know right away how many times the loop will need to run.
So any problem like “iterate this weather model for 1000 cycles”, or “search this list of words”, “find all prime numbers up to 10000” suggest that a for loop is best.
By contrast, if you are required to repeat some computation until some condition is met, and you cannot calculate in advance when (of if) this will happen, as we did in this 3n + 1 problem, you’ll need a while loop.
We call the first case definite iteration — we know ahead of time some definite bounds for what is needed. The latter case is called indefinite iteration — we’re not sure how many iterations we’ll need — we cannot even establish an upper bound!
7.6. Tracing a program
To write effective computer programs, and to build a good conceptual model of program execution, a programmer needs to develop the ability to trace the execution of a computer program. Tracing involves becoming the computer and following the flow of execution through a sample program run, recording the state of all variables and any output the program generates after each instruction is executed.
To understand this process, let’s trace the call to seq3np1(3) from the previous section. At the start of the trace, we have a variable, n (the parameter), with an initial value of 3. Since 3 is not equal to 1, the while loop body is executed. 3 is printed and 3 % 2 == 0 is evaluated. Since it evaluates to False, the else branch is executed and 3 * 3 + 1 is evaluated and assigned to n.
To keep track of all this as you hand trace a program, make a column heading on a piece of paper for each variable created as the program runs and another one for output. Our trace so far would look something like this:
n output printed so far -- --------------------- 3 3, 10
Since 10 != 1 evaluates to True, the loop body is again executed, and 10 is printed. 10 % 2 == 0 is true, so the if branch is executed and n becomes 5. By the end of the trace we have:
n output printed so far -- --------------------- 3 3, 10 3, 10, 5 3, 10, 5, 16 3, 10, 5, 16, 8 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1.
Tracing can be a bit tedious and error prone (that’s why we get computers to do this stuff in the first place!), but it is an essential skill for a programmer to have. From this trace we can learn a lot about the way our code works. We can observe that as soon as n becomes a power of 2, for example, the program will require log2(n) executions of the loop body to complete. We can also see that the final 1 will not be printed as output within the body of the loop, which is why we put the special print function at the end.
Tracing a program is, of course, related to single-stepping through your code and being able to inspect the variables. Using the computer to single-step for you is less error prone and more convenient. Also, as your programs get more complex, they might execute many millions of steps before they get to the code that you’re really interested in, so manual tracing becomes impossible. Being able to set a breakpoint where you need one is far more powerful. So we strongly encourage you to invest time in learning using to use your programming environment (PyScripter, in these notes) to full effect.
There are also some great visualization tools becoming available to help you trace and understand small fragments of Python code. The one we recommend is at http://netserv.ict.ru.ac.za/python3_viz
We’ve cautioned against chatterbox functions, but used them here. As we learn a bit more Python, we’ll be able to show you how to generate a list of values to hold the sequence, rather than having the function print them. Doing this would remove the need to have all these pesky print functions in the middle of our logic, and will make the function more useful.
7.7. Counting digits
The following function counts the number of decimal digits in a positive integer:
1 2 3 4 5 6 def num_digits(n): count = 0 while n != 0: count = count + 1 n = n // 10 return count
A call to print(num_digits(710)) will print 3. Trace the execution of this function call (perhaps using the single step function in PyScripter, or the Python visualizer, or on some paper) to convince yourself that it works.
This function demonstrates an important pattern of computation called a counter. The variable count is initialized to 0 and then incremented each time the loop body is executed. When the loop exits, count contains the result — the total number of times the loop body was executed, which is the same as the number of digits.
If we wanted to only count digits that are either 0 or 5, adding a conditional before incrementing the counter will do the trick:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 def num_zero_and_five_digits(n): count = 0 while n > 0: digit = n % 10 if digit == 0 or digit == 5: count = count + 1 n = n // 10 return count
Confirm that test(num_zero_and_five_digits(1055030250) == 7) passes.
Notice, however, that test(num_digits(0) == 1) fails. Explain why. Do you think this is a bug in the code, or a bug in the specifications, or our expectations, or the tests?
7.8. Abbreviated assignment
Incrementing a variable is so common that Python provides an abbreviated syntax for it:
>>> count = 0 >>> count += 1 >>> count 1 >>> count += 1 >>> count 2
count += 1 is an abreviation for count = count + 1 . We pronounce the operator as “plus-equals”. The increment value does not have to be 1:
>>> n = 2 >>> n += 5 >>> n 7
There are similar abbreviations for -=, *=, /=, //= and %=:
>>> n = 2 >>> n *= 5 >>> n 10 >>> n -= 4 >>> n 6 >>> n //= 2 >>> n 3 >>> n %= 2 >>> n 1
7.9. Help and meta-notation
Python comes with extensive documentation for all its built-in functions, and its libraries. Different systems have different ways of accessing this help. In PyScripter, click on the Help menu item, and select Python Manuals. Then search for help on the built-in function range. You’ll get something like this:
Notice the square brackets in the description of the arguments. These are examples of meta-notation — notation that describes Python syntax, but is not part of it. The square brackets in this documentation mean that the argument is optional — the programmer can omit it. So what this first line of help tells us is that range must always have a stop argument, but it may have an optional start argument (which must be followed by a comma if it is present), and it can also have an optional step argument, preceded by a comma if it is present.
The examples from help show that range can have either 1, 2 or 3 arguments. The list can start at any starting value, and go up or down in increments other than 1. The documentation here also says that the arguments must be integers.
Other meta-notation you’ll frequently encounter is the use of bold and italics. The bold means that these are tokens — keywords or symbols — typed into your Python code exactly as they are, whereas the italic terms stand for “something of this type”. So the syntax description
for variable in list :
means you can substitute any legal variable and any legal list when you write your Python code.
This (simplified) description of the print function, shows another example of meta-notation in which the ellipses (...) mean that you can have as many objects as you like (even zero), separated by commas:
print( [object, ... ] )
Meta-notation gives us a concise and powerful way to describe the pattern of some syntax or feature.
One of the things loops are good for is generating tables. Before computers were readily available, people had to calculate logarithms, sines and cosines, and other mathematical functions by hand. To make that easier, mathematics books contained long tables listing the values of these functions. Creating the tables was slow and boring, and they tended to be full of errors.
When computers appeared on the scene, one of the initial reactions was, “This is great! We can use the computers to generate the tables, so there will be no errors.” That turned out to be true (mostly) but shortsighted. Soon thereafter, computers and calculators were so pervasive that the tables became obsolete.
Well, almost. For some operations, computers use tables of values to get an approximate answer and then perform computations to improve the approximation. In some cases, there have been errors in the underlying tables, most famously in the table the Intel Pentium processor chip used to perform floating-point division.
Although a log table is not as useful as it once was, it still makes a good example of iteration. The following program outputs a sequence of values in the left column and 2 raised to the power of that value in the right column:
1 2 for x in range(13): # Generate numbers 0 to 12 print(x, "\t", 2**x)
The string "\t" represents a tab character. The backslash character in "\t" indicates the beginning of an escape sequence. Escape sequences are used to represent invisible characters like tabs and newlines. The sequence \n represents a newline.
An escape sequence can appear anywhere in a string; in this example, the tab escape sequence is the only thing in the string. How do you think you represent a backslash in a string?
As characters and strings are displayed on the screen, an invisible marker called the cursor keeps track of where the next character will go. After a print function, the cursor normally goes to the beginning of the next line.
The tab character shifts the cursor to the right until it reaches one of the tab stops. Tabs are useful for making columns of text line up, as in the output of the previous program:
0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8 4 16 5 32 6 64 7 128 8 256 9 512 10 1024 11 2048 12 4096
Because of the tab characters between the columns, the position of the second column does not depend on the number of digits in the first column.
7.11. Two-dimensional tables
A two-dimensional table is a table where you read the value at the intersection of a row and a column. A multiplication table is a good example. Let’s say you want to print a multiplication table for the values from 1 to 6.
A good way to start is to write a loop that prints the multiples of 2, all on one line:
1 2 3 for i in range(1, 7): print(2 * i, end=" ") print()
Here we’ve used the range function, but made it start its sequence at 1. As the loop executes, the value of i changes from 1 to 6. When all the elements of the range have been assigned to i, the loop terminates. Each time through the loop, it displays the value of 2 * i, followed by three spaces.
Again, the extra end=" " argument in the print function suppresses the newline, and uses three spaces instead. After the loop completes, the call to print at line 3 finishes the current line, and starts a new line.
The output of the program is:
2 4 6 8 10 12
So far, so good. The next step is to encapsulate and generalize.
7.12. Encapsulation and generalization
Encapsulation is the process of wrapping a piece of code in a function, allowing you to take advantage of all the things functions are good for. You have already seen some examples of encapsulation, including is_divisible in a previous chapter.
Generalization means taking something specific, such as printing the multiples of 2, and making it more general, such as printing the multiples of any integer.
This function encapsulates the previous loop and generalizes it to print multiples of n:
1 2 3 4 def print_multiples(n): for i in range(1, 7): print(n * i, end=" ") print()
To encapsulate, all we had to do was add the first line, which declares the name of the function and the parameter list. To generalize, all we had to do was replace the value 2 with the parameter n.
If we call this function with the argument 2, we get the same output as before. With the argument 3, the output is:
3 6 9 12 15 18
With the argument 4, the output is:
4 8 12 16 20 24
By now you can probably guess how to print a multiplication table — by calling print_multiples repeatedly with different arguments. In fact, we can use another loop:
1 2 for i in range(1, 7): print_multiples(i)
Notice how similar this loop is to the one inside print_multiples. All we did was replace the print function with a function call.
The output of this program is a multiplication table:
1 2 3 4 5 6 2 4 6 8 10 12 3 6 9 12 15 18 4 8 12 16 20 24 5 10 15 20 25 30 6 12 18 24 30 36
7.13. More encapsulation
To demonstrate encapsulation again, let’s take the code from the last section and wrap it up in a function:
1 2 3 def print_mult_table(): for i in range(1, 7): print_multiples(i)
This process is a common development plan. We develop code by writing lines of code outside any function, or typing them in to the interpreter. When we get the code working, we extract it and wrap it up in a function.
This development plan is particularly useful if you don’t know how to divide the program into functions when you start writing. This approach lets you design as you go along.
7.14. Local variables
You might be wondering how we can use the same variable, i, in both print_multiples and print_mult_table. Doesn’t it cause problems when one of the functions changes the value of the variable?
The answer is no, because the i in print_multiples and the i in print_mult_table are not the same variable.
Variables created inside a function definition are local; you can’t access a local variable from outside its home function. That means you are free to have multiple variables with the same name as long as they are not in the same function.
Python examines all the statements in a function — if any of them assign a value to a variable, that is the clue that Python uses to make the variable a local variable.
The stack diagram for this program shows that the two variables named i are not the same variable. They can refer to different values, and changing one does not affect the other.
The value of i in print_mult_table goes from 1 to 6. In the diagram it happens to be 3. The next time through the loop it will be 4. Each time through the loop, print_mult_table calls print_multiples with the current value of i as an argument. That value gets assigned to the parameter n.
Inside print_multiples, the value of i goes from 1 to 6. In the diagram, it happens to be 2. Changing this variable has no effect on the value of i in print_mult_table.
It is common and perfectly legal to have different local variables with the same name. In particular, names like i and j are used frequently as loop variables. If you avoid using them in one function just because you used them somewhere else, you will probably make the program harder to read.
The visualizer at http://netserv.ict.ru.ac.za/python3_viz/ shows very clearly how the two variables i are distinct variables, and how they have independent values.
7.15. The break statement
The break statement is used to immediately leave the body of its loop. The next statement to be executed is the first one after the body: