TCP/IP Model

The TCP/IP model, more commonly known as the Internet protocol suite, is another layering model that is simpler and has been widely adopted. It defines the four separate layers, some of which overlap with the OSI model:

  • Application: In this model, the application layer is responsible for creating and transmitting user data between applications. The applications can be on remote systems, and should appear to operate as if locally to the end user.

The communication is said to take place between peers.

  • Transport: The transport layer is responsible for communication between processes. This level of networking utilizes ports to address different services. It can build up unreliable or reliable connections depending on the type of protocol used.

  • Internet: The internet layer is used to transport data from node to node in a network. This layer is aware of the endpoints of the connections, but does not worry about the actual connection needed to get from one place to another. IP addresses are defined in this layer as a way of reaching remote systems in an addressable manner.

  • Link: The link layer implements the actual topology of the local network that allows the internet layer to present an addressable interface. It establishes connections between neighboring nodes to send data.

As you can see, the TCP/IP model, is a bit more abstract and fluid. This made it easier to implement and allowed it to become the dominant way that networking layers are categorized.