Lesson third

Adjectives

Adjectives describe or modify nouns.

I like fairy tales. A fairy tale is an imaginary story that has unrealisticcharacters in a fantastic background. It makes me forget about thereal world and refreshes my tired mind.

Adjectives generally appear immediately before the noun.

  • pretty girl
  • Red flowers
  • long stick
  • Heavy boxes
  • Warm weather

Commonly, adjectives of opposite meaning are formed by adding a prefix such as unin, or dis.

  • clear – unclear, important – unimportant, predictable – unpredictable, believable – unbelievable, common – uncommon, aware – unaware, ambiguous – unambiguous, conventional – unconventional, certain – uncertain
  • definite – indefinite, correct – incorrect, comparable – incomparable, complete – incomplete, evitable – inevitable, expensive – inexpensive
  • able – disable, assemble – disassemble, content – discontent, similar – dissimilar

When using a string of adjectives, they should appear in a set order: size/shape + age + color + origin + material.

  • A big brown house
  • A small old English desk
  • A beautiful black Italian leather purse
  • Delicious Chinese food

The + adjective describes a class or group of people and acts as a noun.

  • the old, the young, the poor, the rich, the oppressed, the homeless, etc.
  • This popular TV show is loved by the old.

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Comparative adjectives compare two things. Superlative adjectives compare more than two things

Commonly, adjectives that contain only one syllable or end in 'y' use 'er' to form comparatives and 'est' to form superlatives. For adjectives ending in y, change the 'y' to 'i' before adding the 'er' or 'est'.

  • old – older – oldest
  • young – younger – youngest
  • pretty – prettier – prettiest
  • long – longer – longest
  • short – shorter – shortest
  • bright – brighter – brightest
  • close – closer – closest
  • happy – happier - happiest

Adjectives with two or more syllables do not change but instead addmore to form comparatives and most to form superlatives.

  • respectable – more respectable – most respectable
  • beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful
  • preferable – more preferable – most preferable
  • hardworking – more hardworking – most hardworking

Some adjectives have different forms of comparatives and superlatives.

  • good – better – best
  • bad – worse – worst
  • little – less – least
  • much (many) – more – most
  • far – further - furthest

The word than typically appears in comparative sentences.

  • Amy is smarter than Betty.
  • Chad is stronger than Dan.
  • Greg is more diligent than his brother.
  • I have more apples than he.
  • She likes him more than me.

Superlatives are typically accompanied by the word the.

  • Tom is the oldest man in town.
  • Paul is the tallest boy in the neighborhood.
  • That shade of blue is the most beautiful color.
  • This is the longest song that I have ever heard.

 

Todd: Selvam, what is your favorite food?

Selvam: My favorite fruit is grapes.

Todd: Grapes.

Selvam: Yeah.

Todd: Oh, really!

Selvam: Yes.

Todd: OK. Do you like wine? Do you drink wine?

Selvam: No, no, I don't drink anything, but I like grapes, the taste is very good.

Todd: Do you like...?

Selvam: It's very sweet that's why I like them.

Todd: Do you like green grapes or purple grapes?

Selvam: Green, Green grapes.

Todd: Green grapes.

Selvam: Yeah.

Todd: OK, are there many grapes around your hometown in India?

Selvam: Yes, yeah. We have, I used to eat everyday grapes, because I like them very much that's.

Todd: OK, actually in my home in America we have many grapes where I live also.

Selvam: Oh.

Todd: Yeah, and how about what is your favorite season?

Selvam: My favorite season is winter.

Todd: Winter.

Selvam: Yeah, because in India, most of the days will be summer. Winter will come for only two months. That's why we love winter season.

Todd: Really?

Selvam: Yeah, it is very summer, very hot. That's why people are very black as a reason.

Todd: You like the cool, cool weather.

Selvam: Yes.

Todd: Oh, nice. I'm the opposite. I like warm weather