Lesson six

Progressive and Perfect Tense

Progressive Tense :-

The progressive tense involves action that is, was, or will be in progress at a certain time. In the progressive tense, verbs are formed with a "be" verb + ing.

run

  • I am running a marathon right now. (present progressive)
  • I was running a marathon at this time last year. (past progressive)
  • I will be running a marathon next Sunday. (future progressive)

eat

  • I am eating lunch now.
  • I was eating lunch when you saw me.
  • I will be eating lunch in the meeting.

learn

  • I am learning English at my desk.
  • I was learning English the last two years.
  • I will be learning English then.

cook

  • I am cooking my supper now.
  • I was cooking our dinner when you called me.
  • I will be cooking breakfast by the time you come home.

Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense describes an action that started in the past and continues to the present time. Use has/have + the past participle form of the verb.

The past perfect tense describes an action that started and ended in the past. Use had + the past participle form of the verb.

The future perfect tense describes future actions that will occur before some other action. Use will have + the past participle form of the verb.

run

  • I have run several marathons this year. (present perfect)
  • I had run many marathons in the past. (past perfect)
  • I will have run a marathon by the time I turn 30. (future perfect)

learn

  • I have learned a lot about English grammar this semester.
  • I had learned the basics of English grammar in elementary school.
  • I will have learned a lot about English grammar when I finish college.

know

  • I have known her since I was young.
  • I had known her until she passed away.
  • I will have known her for 20 years next month.

cook

  • I have cooked supper every night this week.
  • I had cooked supper every night until the stove broke.
  • I will have cooked supper every night by the time this diet ends.

Ron: Hi, I'm Ron from Hawaii. I'm here with Mari from Japan. Today we're gonna be talking about food. So Mari, what's your favorite cuisine?

Mari: I think I like American food.

Ron: What type of American food?

Mari: I like hamburgers.

Ron: Hamburgers. Is that your favorite dish as well?

Mari: That is my favorite dish. My favorite hamburger place is right near where I went to university and they have this hamburger called the Danish Burger, and the Danish Burger has blue cheese inside the hamburger, so I love ... my favorite dish has to be the Danish Burger.

Ron: Do you like any side things like french fries with your hamburger?

Mari: I love french fries but I know that eating hamburger and french fries is a little bit unhealthy so I always replace the french fries for a salad.

Ron: A salad. OK. What about dessert? What's your favorite dessert?

Mari: My favorite dessert has to be chocolate cake.

Ron: Chocolate cake. Anything else? Do you like to eat it with anything?

Mari: No, I like chocolate cake by itself. Anything else? I like brownie sundaes, like brownies and choc ... brownies with vanilla ice-cream. I guess my favorite dessert is anything chocolaty.

Ron: Sounds good. So before you said you like to eat a salad. What type of salad, what type of vegetables do you like?

Mari: I like all vegetables. I like them cooked or raw but I don't like raw onions.

Ron: Not raw onions.

Mari: I really can't eat onions raw. That's probably the only vegetable I can't eat raw.

Ron: That's interesting. Thanks Mari.

Vocabulary

cuisine

What's your favorite cuisine?

'Cuisine' talks about a style of cooking or kinds of food from different countries.  Note the following:

  1. Thai cuisine is too spicy for me.
  2. I prefer Italian to French cuisine.

side things

Do you like any side things like french fries with your hamburger?

A side thing or side dish is a small amount of food serverd with the main course.  Note the following:

  1. I never order side things like fries, just burgers.
  2. The set includes side things like soup and salad.

replace

I always replace the french fries for a salad.

At a restaurant we can sometimes change one dish for another.  Note the following:

  1. Can I replace the soup with a salad?
  2. It's time to replace the battery in my watch.

has to be

My favorite dessert has to be chocolate cake.

'Has to be' is simlar in meaning to 'must be'.  Note the following:

  1. The greatest golfer ever has to be Tiger Woods.
  2. Whoa!  It has to be the hottest day of the year.

raw

I really can't eat onions raw.

'Raw' means not cooked.  Note the following:

  1. Sushi is basically raw fish.
  2. Raw vegetables are healthier than cooked vegetables.